In this tutorial you learn how to use the skills you learned writing state tests to write blockchain tests. These tests can include multiple blocks and each of those blocks can include multiple transactions.
Before you start, make sure you create the retesteth tutorial and create the environment explained there. Also make sure you read and understand the state transition tests tutorial.
Types of Blockchain Tests¶
If you go to tests/src/BlockchainTestsFiller you will see three different directories.
- ValidBlocks are tests that only have valid blocks, which the client should accept.
- InvalidBlocks are tests that should raise an exception because they include invalid blocks.
- TransitionTests are tests that verify the transitions between different versions of the Ethereum protocol (called forks) are handled correctly.
Valid Block Tests¶
There is a valid block test in tests/docs/tutorial_samples/05_simpleTxFiller.yml. We copy it to bcExample.
mkdir ~/tests/src/Blo*/Val*/bcExample* cp ~/tests/docs/tu*/05_* ~/tests/src/Blo*/Val*/bcExample* cd ~ ./dretesteth.sh -t BlockchainTests/ValidBlocks/bcExample -- \ --testpath ~/tests --datadir /tests/config --filltests \ --singletest 05_simpleTx
Test Source Code¶
This section explains 05_simpleTxFiller.yml. I am only going to document the things in which it is different from state transition tests.
State transition tests take their genesis block from the client configuration (or, failing that, from the default client configuration) in retesteth. In blockchain tests the values may be relevant to the test, so you specify them directly.
genesisBlockHeader: bloom: '0x00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000' coinbase: '0x8888f1f195afa192cfee860698584c030f4c9db1' difficulty: '131072' extraData: '0x42' gasLimit: '3141592' gasUsed: '0' mixHash: '0x56e81f171bcc55a6ff8345e692c0f86e5b48e01b996cadc001622fb5e363b421' nonce: '0x0102030405060708' number: '0' parentHash: '0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000' receiptTrie: '0x56e81f171bcc55a6ff8345e692c0f86e5b48e01b996cadc001622fb5e363b421' stateRoot: '0xf99eb1626cfa6db435c0836235942d7ccaa935f1ae247d3f1c21e495685f903a' timestamp: '0x54c98c81' transactionsTrie: '0x56e81f171bcc55a6ff8345e692c0f86e5b48e01b996cadc001622fb5e363b421' uncleHash: '0x1dcc4de8dec75d7aab85b567b6ccd41ad312451b948a7413f0a142fd40d49347'
In a lot of existing tests you will see a definition for sealEngine. This is related to getting a proof of work as part of the test. However, this is no longer part of retesteth, so you can omit it or set it to NoProof.
# sealEngine: NoProof
Instead of a single transaction, we have a list of blocks. In a YAML list you tell different items apart by the dash character (-). The block list has two items in it.
The first block has one field, transactions, a list of transactions. Every individual transaction is specified with the same fields used in state transition tests. This block only has one transaction, which transfers 10 Wei.
- transactions: - data: '' gasLimit: '50000' gasPrice: 20
This is the nonce value for the transaction. The first value is the nonce associated with the address in the pre: section. Each subsequent transaction from the same address increments the nonce.
Alternatively, if you use auto for every transaction of an account, the retesteth tool will provide the nonce values automatically.
nonce: '0' secretKey: 45a915e4d060149eb4365960e6a7a45f334393093061116b197e3240065ff2d8 to: 0xde570000de570000de570000de570000de570000 value: '10'
This is the second block. In contrast to the first block, in this one we specify a blockHeader and override some of the default values.
- blockHeader: gasLimit: '3141592'
A block can also contain references to uncle blocks (blocks mined at the same time). Note that writing tests with uncle headers is complicated, because you need to run the test once to get the correct hash value. Only then can you put the correct value in the test and run it again so it’ll be successful.
This block has two transactions.
transactions: - data: '' gasLimit: '50000' gasPrice: '20'
This is another transaction from the same address, so the nonce is one more than it was in the previous one.
nonce: '1' secretKey: 45a915e4d060149eb4365960e6a7a45f334393093061116b197e3240065ff2d8 to: 0xde570000de570000de570000de570000de570000 value: '20' - data: '' gasLimit: '50000' gasPrice: '30'
This transaction comes from a different address (addresses are uniquely derived from the private key, and this one is different from the one in the previous transaction). This transaction’s nonce value is the initial value for that address, zero.
nonce: '0' secretKey: 41f6e321b31e72173f8ff2e292359e1862f24fba42fe6f97efaf641980eff298 to: 0xde570000de570000de570000de570000de570000 value: '30'
Tests using the blockchain random value¶
Once Ethereum moves to proof of stake (PoS), there will no longer be any need for the block header fields difficulty and mixHash. When the block header comes from a consensus client, the mixHash is a mostly random value that is produced by the beacon chain (the validators can each affect a bit on it, so it’s not exactly random). The DIFFICULTY opcode is no longer relevant either, so it is replaced by an opcode with the same value (0x44) called PREVRANDAO. You can read more about this topic in EIP-4399.
In block tests we can simulate this value by specifying a mixHash as part of blockHeader. However, the interaction of mixHash and stateRoot makes this process a bit complicated.
First, you write the test normally, using the block header field mixHash for the random value that in real execution would come from the consensus layer. Note that mixHash has to be a 32 byte value. Even if most of the bytes are zeros, you have to specify them.
When you run the test, it fails on the first block where the state is a function of the random value with an error that includes these lines:
/retesteth/retesteth/TestOutputHelper.cpp(227): error: in "BlockchainTests/ValidBlocks/bcStateTests": Error: Postmine block tweak expected no exception! Client errors with: 'Error importing raw rlp block: Block from pending block != t8ntool constructed block! Error in field: stateRoot . . . parentHash 0x76898c312aea29aa17df32e97399ccdf88e72c544305c9ddc3e76996e35ab951 vs 0x76898c312aea29aa17df32e97399ccdf88e72c544305c9ddc3e76996e35ab951 receiptTrie 0x71043553dd2c4fbc22100a69d47ba3a790f7e428796792c552362b81e6cf5331 vs 0x71043553dd2c4fbc22100a69d47ba3a790f7e428796792c552362b81e6cf5331 stateRoot 0x7a3760ed3aa3e40711b3ecd1cb898a9f37c14cbde7f95b7c5c7af05e6d794864 vs 0x1b5647d3ca49c4b0e9e57e113f85b1be28ac10f0577b6e70c76fb7d767949bf8
In the error there are two separate values of stateRoot. The first, shown in red, is the expected value. The second, shown in yellow, is the actual value. You need to copy that second value into the block header.
- blockHeader: mixHash: 0x0102030405060708091011121314151617181920212223242526272829303131 stateRoot: 0x1b5647d3ca49c4b0e9e57e113f85b1be28ac10f0577b6e70c76fb7d767949bf8
If you use the random value also in another block, you repeat the process, once per block.
Why is this procedure necessary?¶
Retesteth was written back during the proof of work (PoW) days, when mixHash was a function of the nonce, which itself was produced from the completed block (including the post-block stateRoot). The way that it fills the block header is to first get the block processed by the client, read the resulting stateRoot (as well as some other fields). Then it reverts out of the block and sends it again, this time with the blockHeader fields and the calculated fields from the client.
This algorithm fails when the state, and therefore stateRoot, is affected by block header fields.
Invalid Block Tests¶
The invalid block test is in tests/docs/tutorial_samples/06_invalidBlockFiller.yml We copy it to bcExample.
mkdir ~/tests/src/BlockchainTestsFiller/InvalidBlocks/bcExample cp ~/tests/docs/tutorial_samples/06_* ~/tests/src/Bl*/In*/bcExample* cd ~ ./dretesteth.sh -t BlockchainTests/InvalidBlocks/bcExample -- \ --testpath ~/tests --datadir /tests/config --filltests \ --singletest 06_invalidBlock
Invalid block tests contain invalid blocks, blocks that cause a client to raise an exception. To tell retesteth which exception should be raised by a block, we add an expectException field to the blockHeader. In that field we put the different forks the test supports, and the exception we expect to be raised in them. It is a good idea to have a field that includes future forks.
- blockHeader: gasLimit: '30' expectException: Berlin: TooMuchGasUsed '>=London': TooMuchGasUsed
The expectException field is only used when --filltests is specified. When it is not, retesteth just expects the processing of the block to fail, without ensuring the exception is the correct one. The reason for this feature is that not all clients tell us the exact exception type when they reject a block as invalid.
Getting Exception Names¶
If you don’t know what exception to expect, run the test without an expectException. The output will include an error message similar to this one:
Error: Postmine block tweak expected no exception! Client errors with: 'Error importing raw rlp block: Invalid gasUsed: header.gasUsed > header.gasLimit' (bcBlockGasLimitTest/06_invalidBlock_Berlin, fork: Berlin, chain: default, block: 2)
Then took in tests/conf/<name of client>/config and look for the first few words of the error message. For example, in tests/conf/tn8tool/config we find this line:
"TooMuchGasUsed" : "Invalid gasUsed:",
This tells us that the exception to expect is TooMuchGasUsed.
Transition Tests start with one fork, which is used to execute blocks 1-4. Then, typically starting at block 5, it is the following fork. You can see the list of transition networks here or in …/tests/config/t8ntool/config.
In the case of the ArrowGlacier to Merge transition it happens at a specific difficulty, 0x0C0000. At the block difficulty most tests use, 0x020000, this happens on block 6.
You should now be able to write most types of Ethereum tests. If you still have questions, you can look in the reference section or e-mail for help.